Home World After 30 years of anti-cancer drugs, it turns out that humans have always got the principles wrong-IT and Health-cnBeta.COM

After 30 years of anti-cancer drugs, it turns out that humans have always got the principles wrong-IT and Health-cnBeta.COM

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The international expert group estimates that in 2021, the total weight of electronic waste, including discarded electronic products and electrical equipment, will exceed an astonishing 57 million tons, which is heavier than the Great Wall of China.In 2020, the “Global E-waste Monitoring 2020” data jointly released by various United Nations agencies shows that the global e-waste monitoring in 201953.6 millionTons of e-waste, brokenhistorical record

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Speaking of anti-cancer drugs, many people are not unfamiliar with paclitaxel. As a natural anti-cancer drug,Paclitaxel is a diterpene alkaloid compound with anticancer activityTherefore, it has been clinically applied to the treatment of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and lung cancer.

According to existing clinical data, about half of breast cancer patients can benefit from paclitaxel, but there is no way to determine which patients belong to this group of people, so it is difficult to achieve precise treatment.

However, according to a study by “Science-Translational Medicine”, this situation may soon be improved. Scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison discovered a special feature,It can predict whether cancer cells are sensitive to paclitaxel

We all know that almost all cells divide. This is the process of cell proliferation and tissue growth, namelyMitosis. In this process, the chromosomes will be evenly separated into daughter cells. If the chromosomes are separated by mistake and the distribution is wrong, then the daughter cells will have an abnormal number of genes.

The low rate of chromosomal segregation (also known as chromosomal instability) will promote unsupervised division of cells and eventually lead to tumors.But when this ratio is too high, the cells will die.

In the latest study, researchers looked at breast cancer samples from patients treated with low-dose paclitaxel and focused on what happens when the cells divide.

When a normal cell divides, the spindle is responsible for connecting the chromosomes and pulling the chromosomes to separate them during division. Under normal circumstances, their positions generally appear at the two poles of the cell. However, breast cancer cells do not follow this rule, and their spindles form multiple poles.

There are two paths left to them: maintaining an abnormal spindle structure during division; or changing back to a normal, two-pole spindle. The researchers found in the observation thatThe former will make the chromosomes of cancer cells highly unstable and more sensitive to paclitaxel.

The researchers pointed out that the presence of paclitaxel seems to allow it to maintain an abnormal spindle and amplify the instability of cancer cells. This is contrary to past discoveries. Traditional theories believe that paclitaxel exerts an anti-cancer effect by preventing cancer cells from dividing, but new research points in another direction.Paclitaxel actually amplifies the chromosome separation errors of cancer cells, causing them to die.

This is also the true toxicity of paclitaxel to cancer cells. If paclitaxel is added, but cancer cells can return to a polarized spindle, then the efficacy of paclitaxel will be greatly reduced.

This result indicates that the accepted principle of action of paclitaxel in the past 30 years may be wrong“Professor Beth Weaver, the lead author of the study, said that this discovery may have important implications for precise drug delivery. Doctors only need to use the remaining part of the biopsy tissue to detect chromosomal instability and determine whether the patient is suitable for paclitaxel. “We are trying to transform this conventional chemotherapy drug into an individualized therapy, so that we can apply paclitaxel to patients who can really benefit. “

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