Do different blood types have a different risk of stroke?

Stroke, where a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or ruptured, is a disease that affects people all over the world, and various studies have been carried out so far on the risk of stroke. A new study found that people with blood type A had a higher risk of stroke when they were younger than 60.

Blood is the best known method of blood distribution using the difference between antigens on the surface of blood cells or antibodies contained in serum. Blood grouping is also medically important because transfusing different types of blood into one blood group can cause serious side effects due to the immune response caused by the combination of antigen and antibodies.

In recent years, blood types have also been found to be associated with the severity of various diseases etc. For example, besides people with type B being resistant to the mainstream norovirus, people with type O have also been reported to have a lower rate or severity of COVID-19 infection and type AB to have a higher risk.

The new study analyzed blood type and stroke risk using data from 16,730 stroke patients and 599,237 non-stroke patients collected from 48 different genetic studies. In this study, we examined the association between 18-59-year-old early stroke (EOS) and blood type using genome-wide association interpretation, which interprets the association with disease for the entire genome.

The analysis found that one of the two gene regions strongly associated with early stroke risk corresponds to the gene that determines the blood type, according to the researchers. They also found that early stroke patients were more likely to have type A blood and less likely to be type O. Even after adjusting for gender and other risk factors, people with type A had a risk of stroke 16 % higher and people with type O had a 12% lower risk than other blood types.

In addition, as a result of analyzing data from stroke patients aged 60 and over and non-stroke patients, it was found that the increased risk of stroke among type A people was mild in early stroke (LOS) patients aged 60 and suggested that possibility that there may be a different pathogenesis in early onset stroke in the younger age group and late onset stroke in people aged 60 years or older. In this regard, the researchers noted that younger people are less likely to have a stroke because arterial fat builds up, and instead, factors for clot formation are more likely to trigger a stroke. In addition, people with blood type B had an 11% higher risk of stroke, regardless of age.

The researchers argue that blood type-related increases in stroke risk are small, so even if you have type A, there is no need for additional screening tests or special surveillance. Although it is not yet clear why type A increases the risk of early stroke, the research team said it is related to the formation of blood clots. It is clear that further follow-up is needed to clarify.

For reference, in this study data, the proportion of non-Europeans was 35%. Therefore, it is noted that the importance of the results will be further revealed by conducting studies using samples based on various demographics. Relevant information can be found here.

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