Eating too much salt and taking too much salt can lead to high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and other diseases in the long term. Fortunately, there are “salt removal foods” that can help reduce the burden on the body.
A diet high in salt increases mortality and can cause 5 chronic diseases
People often hear that you should eat less salt and not too salty.. Doesn’t salt have any special health benefits other than seasoning? In fact, it is very important to add some salt to your diet.
The main component of table salt is sodium chloride, including 40% sodium,60% chlorine. Sodium is an essential element for the normal functioning of the human body, it maintains normal osmotic pressure in the body, regulates pH in the body, transmits nerves, contracts and relaxes muscles, and maintains a regular heartbeat.
Human sweat and tears have a salty taste, which is associated with sodium. When people exercise vigorously, the sodium in the body will be excreted in large quantities with sweat. If the salt is not replenished immediately, it will cause symptoms such as cramps.
Therefore, the human body needs to supplement the correct amount of sodium every day to maintain body function. The current recommended daily intake of sodium for adults is 2300 mg, which is less than 6 grams of salt.
However, people often eat too much salt. long term,The risk of death also rose.CDC’s Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Group published a large study that followed 12,267 American adults for 15 years and found that those with the highest sodium intake had a 20% higher all-cause mortality rate than those with the lowest sodium intake .
Too much salt over a long period of time can also increase the risk of many chronic diseases:
1. Hypertension and cardiovascular disease
Dietician Chen Yiting pointed out that the main effects of eating too much salt on the body are high blood pressure and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Too much sodium in the human body is excreted by the kidneys, excessive intake of salt will increase the burden on the kidneys. If the kidneys cannot excrete enough sodium, sodium will accumulate in the body. At this time, the human body must absorb a lot of water to maintain osmotic pressure balance, and the total blood volume will increase, which will increase blood pressure and increase the burden on the heart.
If the circulatory system is in this state for a long time, it can harden the blood vessels, leading to high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke, and even heart failure.
2. Chronic kidney disease
Eating too much salt can cause high blood pressure, which is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease. A meta-analysis in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases found that people with high blood pressure have a 76 percent higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease compared to individuals with normal blood pressure.
A diet high in salt can increase the risk of kidney disease, as well as high blood pressure, eating too much salt can directly harm the body.Harmfulkidneydirty,Including causing proteinuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate.
Chen Yiting said that long-term intake of too much sodium will affect the secretion of insulin, thereby causing diabetes.
The results of a medical record and questionnaire survey of 13,000 adults in Tokyo, Japan showed that the cumulative incidence of diabetes was significantly higher in the high-calorie and high-salt intake group compared to subjects in the high-calorie and low-salt intake group. .
In fact, diets high in salt have been found to be associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
A high salt diet not only hurts, hurts the kidneys, but also hurts the bones.
When the sodium content in the body is too high, the urinary calcium excretion will also increase, In order to maintain the calcium concentration in the blood, the body will automatically release calcium from the bones into the blood, which will causes osteoporosis in the long term. run.
A study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in postmenopausal women showed that bone loss can be reduced if urinary sodium excretion is reduced.
An animal study found that long-term excessive salt intake leads to an increase in the number of osteoclasts, a decrease in the number of osteoblasts, and a decrease in osteoid volume, leading to a lack of bone quality and integrity.
5. Gastric cancer
According to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), excessive salt intake is associated with an increase in gastric cancer. For example, salty meat and fish, salty vegetables, etc., when people eat more of these foods, the greater the chance of stomach cancer.
The reason is that salt damages the lining of the stomach and causes ulcers which, if left unchecked, can turn into stomach cancer. In addition, Helicobacter pylori stomach infection can also damage the stomach wall and cause stomach cancer. If you eat too much salt at the same time, it will worsen the stomach condition.
Eating foods high in potassium helps to get rid of salt, reducing the risk of death
When eating too much salt, there is one type of nutrient that helps flush the salt out of your body, which is potassium.The best salt depleting foods are those high in potassium.
Contrary to sodium, Chen Yiting pointed out that adding more potassium can lower blood pressure and prevent cardiovascular disease, it can also eliminate sodium, maintain the balance of sodium and potassium in the body, and reduce the negative effects of high sodium intake.
In a study published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 23 hypertensive patients were divided into two groups for one month without changing their dietary sodium and potassium intake, potassium tablets and a placebo were administered. As a result, the average blood pressure in the potassium supplement group decreased by 4% compared to the placebo group.
The researchers also asked 12 hypertensive patients with stable sodium and potassium intake to take potassium tablets for 12 consecutive days and found that potassium supplementation resulted in immediate sodium excretion, with an average sodium excretion of 110 millimoles (mmol) per patient.
The body needs a lot more potassium than sodium every day, but people usually don’t get enough. A large Harvard study found that increasing potassium intake and decreasing sodium intake were associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that an increase in urinary potassium excretion of 1,000 mg per day (meaning an increase in intake) is associated with an 18% lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Those with the highest potassium intake had a 20% lower risk of death from all causes, including cardiovascular disease, than those with the lowest intake.
The following are salt-depleting foods that are high in potassium:
fruit:Bananas, cantaloupe, papaya, cherry tomatoes, kiwi, citrus, durian.
vegetable:Spinach, sweet potato leaves, celery, chrysanthemum, Sichuan seven, water spinach, red amaranth, amaranth, beets.
starch:Potato, yam, pumpkin, taro, sweet potato.
Snacks and drinks:Original nut seeds, dark chocolate, coffee, green tea, red bean water.
The disadvantage of high potassium vegetables is that some potassium is lost in the soup during cooking. And people often add too much salt and other processed seasonings when cooking. Chen Yiting suggested that you can make good use of natural spices such as onion, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, rosemary, coriander, tomato, lemon, star anise, Italian spices, etc., to reduce the amount of seasoning.
Another way to add potassium is to make green lattes with high-potassium vegetables and fruits so that potassium is not lost during cooking. However, in the green latte blend, the proportion of vegetables is greater than the proportion of fruit. (Recommended reading:These foods burn fat and boost metabolism! 3 homemade drinks to lose weight while drinking)
Fruit, snacks and drinks with potassium content should still pay attention to the intake and avoid eating too much sugar and fat.
Don’t eat too much salt? Beware of foods high in sodium without salt
In addition to foods that remove salt, it is still necessary to reduce sodium intake in the diet and eat less processed foods. This is a relatively healthy eating pattern.
To avoid eating too much salt, eat less processed foods in the first place. A US survey found that most of the salt people eat comes from commercially processed foods, rather than salt added when cooking at home.
Common high sodium processed foods include: ham, bacon, hot dogs, sausage, bacon, meat floss, jerky, hot pot ingredients, pickled foods, instant noodles, canned food, potato chips, and so forth.
Many foods that do not taste salty, such as sweet and sour preserves and dried fruit, are actually high in sodium. Baked goods such as bread, cakes and biscuits that people often eat are also made with salt.
To avoid accidentally eating processed foods with high sodium, pay attention to the nutrition label on the package. Chen Yiting noted,Foods containing more than 600 mg of sodium per 100 grams or milliliters of food are considered high sodium foods.
In addition to processed foods, there are also high-sodium foods in the freshly cooked food that people eat in restaurants and snack bars. For example: pizza, burritos, lo-mei, barbecue, beef noodles, hot pot, risotto, soup dishes, soup, salty chicken, etc.
Chen Yiting reminded that the salt of some foods mainly comes from its dipping sauce or dipping sauce, such as tomato sauce, sauce for dumplings and pot stickers, and salad dressing. For a refreshing salad, the dressing is high in sodium, even with vinaigrette.
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Responsible editor: Li Qingfeng