Last paper Stephen Hawking (almost): eliminate the beginning of the universe Science

In his last paper on cosmetics, Stephen Hawking and a younger colleague attacked cosmic inflation and his dissatisfaction.

Jason Bye / Writer Pictures through AP Images

By Adrian Cho

When Stephen Hawking died on 14 March, the famous theoretical physicist still had a few papers. Today, the Journal of High Energy Physics he published his last work in cosmology – the science of how the universe emerged and emerged. (Other papers on black holes are still being prepared.) In the new paper, Hawking and Thomas Hertog, a theoretical physicist at the Catholic University of Leuven (KU) in Belgium, paste a pin into a strange concept called eternal inflation. gives an impression – that inevitably, according to some of the physicists – not just many people in the heart of our universe. A concept from string theory, Hawking and Hertog argues that there is no eternal inflation and only one universe. But what they are driving is even more fundamental: They claim that our universe has not created any form of singular.

How does the argument work? Follow its winding thread until the end of the beginning.

Let ’start the basics: What is cosmetic inflation?

Cosmic inflation is a huge growth boom that was thought to be the exact extension of the infants during the first fraction of the second. Inflation, which was lived in 1979 by American theorist Alan Guth, after inflation was extended immediately after the large lock, doubling the size of the globe several times over at least 60 times over before slowing down. do very much.

Why do cosmologists believe in something strange?

Inflation solves a big puzzle: Why is the universe so uniform? For example, space is the inflated radiation coming from the large block, the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The same temperature is almost exactly everywhere in the sky. Firstly, points that are widely separated are far too far apart to achieve any overall impact over the 13.8 billion years of rounding. The inflation solves the puzzle by pointing out that all the points in the sky began close enough to interact, and then they stretched far apart.

Does all inflation?

Ironically, inflation is also a good reason why the universe is not completely uniform. Of course, the space is cushioned with galaxies. According to theory, inflation extended infinite fluctuations of the amounts in those first moments to an extra-revolutionary amount. The fluctuations then combined variations in the dense particle soup which formed the formation of galaxies. Inflation predicts a certain spectrum of longer and shorter fluctuations. Studies on the BMS and galaxies certainly confirm this distribution.

Cosmic inflation indicates that the infant globe has grown bog bog growth, extending sub-atomic ripples to the cosmic scale immediately.

WMAP / NASA Science Team

Doesn't look;eternal inflation?

This is where the concept of inflation has its own problems. The idea that inflation suddenly stops, for whatever reason, is not greatly appreciated by physicists. They have a much better mechanism that explains what inflation has driven and ended. That is why they accept some sort of ration that it drove before it strikes out. The idea is that the field only starts in a "stable vacuum" vacuum that is almost stable, and has higher energy. It then solves to its lowest energy situation, where the space expands much more slowly.

The case works a little too well, however. The ever-expanding false vacuum produces more and more itself, so more space is expanding at a very fast rate. Our universe is a patch of which the transition to the low energy vacuum state was made. But that should happen at random, so many of the other universe should also exist. Indeed, the process should always create a growing space at an exponential rate, with an infinite “pocket” number that grows more slowly.

Is this a problem?

It depends on who asks you. At the most basic level, the other globes would have no impact on our universe. They are just far from home to have no connection with our pool. On the other hand, the concept of eternal and multifaceted inflation could contribute to the overall enterprise of the enterprise as it explains why the universe exists, says Hertog. Things like the values ​​of some of the main physical constants may change randomly among the mobile universes, he says, which would make any attempt to explain why the values ​​they make are in our universe. They would be set with a random chance, Hertog says, and this is not very satisfactory.

So how does Hawking?s and Hertog ’s paper to solve the problem?

Hawking and Hertog argue that eternal inflation does not really happen. To do this, they borrow a concept from string theory that enables them to balance two different types of theory with different aspects. In 1997, American African theorist, Juan Maldacena, considered the amount of space at work. Maldacena, now at the Institute of Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey, showed that theory of quantum theory was easier to work on the space limit of gravity. It is similar to what happens inside saying that a soda can be caught with a theory that describes what is happening on the surface of the cannon.

Eternal inflation arises because of the quantum fluctuations in the area that stimulate inflation as much as the average field value in the universe. But Hawking and Hertog claim that Albert Einstein's general relativity theory can only be used under one of these conditions, but instead they need to use a move like Maldacena to see the whole situation in a space with one smaller dimension. In this alternative space, things are more accessible, they claim, and physics does not lead to eternal inflation. Instead, single universe association, good behavior together.

So what does this start with the universe?

That's where things are interesting – and tricky. The concept of balancing one theory to another in space with a smaller dimension is that it is known by theoretical physicists as holography. In his work, Maldacena was equal to one theory to another in a space with one less spatial dimension. But, Hertog argues, the principle of holography allows theories to mitigate the time dimension, instead. So in Hawking and Hertog's theory, through the principle of holography, theory should be described on the universe very soon and only three spatial elements and no time.

But why would you want to get rid of time?

Since then it emerged that the universe had begun, the time she was born was a headache for theorists. Speaking roughly, Einstein's general theory of soundness makes a good job to explain things after the moment of the big block, but he cannot cope with the volume itself. That moment creates “unity” in space-space – like a mathematical function that explodes to infinity – which goes up the theory. So theories have long sought a way to avoid this autism – and one way to lose that would be.

It is a problem that really enjoyed her entire career, says Hertog. Ten years ago, he proposed another arrangement by commenting that the time was rarely speaking, three-dimensionally, thinking that the new work was not mesmerized.

So is this the end to eternal inflation and the big song?

Probably not. Others will scrutinize Hawking and Hertog's invasion of the changing relationship. And even if other researchers survive, there is still a big question to answer, Hertog acknowledges. If theorists begin with a theory that has only spatial dimensions, how does the time finally come from? “We put out a new paradigm,” says Hertog, “but there is a lot of work to be done.”

* Correction, May 3, 10 a.m: This story was updated to correct the Institute of Advanced Studies.

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