Scientists discover that virus-insect viruses interact with plants

Scientists discover that virus-insect viruses interact with plants

A peach green aphid feeds on a lichen tomato plant. The insect transmits more than 100 plant viruses and feeds on a variety of crops, including peaches, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage and corn.

Aphids and the plant viruses that they cause cause billions of dollars in top debit worldwide every year. A Cornell-led research team is examining the relationship at the molecular level, which may lead to new methods of controlling the pests.

A group led by Michelle Heck, a molecular research biologist at the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and the Boyce Thompson Institute, recently developed small RNA sequencing techniques to gain a better understanding of how plant viruses interact with brass. . And in a discovery without anticipation, Heck and her team revealed the first sample of a plant virus and an insect virus by collaborating to increase the likelihood of both viruses spreading in their host plants and increasing aphids.

The work was published, “Plant Viruses Transmitted in Two Different Methods of Different Effects on RNA-Mediation Small Processes in Aphid Vector,” in March in Phetobiomes.

Heck, an associate professor at the School of Integrated Plant Science in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and his team focused on the green peach apple (Myzus persicae), which transmits more than 100 plant viruses and feeds to various crops, including peaches, tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage and corn.

The potato leaf virus (PLRV) is of particular concern, as it can reduce potato yield by more than 50%, resulting in 20 million tonnes of global production losses per year.

“The most interesting result of this research is that PLRV prevented the aphid's immune system, and that individual protein protein, the P0 protein, prevented this prevention,” said Jennifer Wilson's author. , Ph.D. student and member of Heck laboratory.

P0 is a PLRV protein that is expressed inside a plant tissue but not inside the aphids. While P0 has previously been shown to have exceeded the plant's immune systems, the researchers were surprised by the impact of protein on the insect immune system.

“We don't know if the aphids are able to remove P0 from the plant or not, but we know that when P0 is present in the plant, the immune systems of the explosions are suppressed,” Wilson said.

One critical outcome of the insect immune system is the increase in insect virus proliferation, Mynsus persicae densovirus (MpDNV). The researchers also found that aphids were more likely to have wings with MpDNV.

Because wings are rarely encountered by green peach aphids that the weather gets colder in the fall, this increase in isolated insects could cause the spread of PLRV and MpDNV to new hosts for the entire summer, effect. synergist induced less if the infected aphids were one of the viruses.

“We think we have received the first example of a plant virus to an insect virus,” said Wilson. “This collaboration could lead to these two collaborations.”

Wilson and Heck are working to test this hypothesis by repeating the experiments in non-infected MpDNV hives, which Wilson collected last summer from farms in New York. Future work could include how MpDNV and P0 protein could be used to control the transmission of viruses at aphids.

“Developing strategies to prevent virus transmission in the area is a key goal of our research program,” Heck said.

Researchers from FTC, Cornell and the USDA-ARS collaborated on this study, supported by grants from the National Science Foundation and USDA.

Aaron J. Bouchie is a scientific writer for the Boyce Thompson Institute.

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