The flu season is here. All this you need to find out about signs, complications and vaccines

The flu season is here. All this you need to find out about signs, complications and vaccines

Many of us describe any winter bug that we get as flu, but in fact, it is equally likely that we have a common cold or one of many viral cousins.

We will examine:

Influenza is a very infectious virus, which is short of influenza. It extends through the air from infected people sneezing and sneezing, and from viruses present on hands and surfaces. It multiplies in cells in people's airways, and is a respiratory infection.

Flu anatomy

The viral particles causing a tiny flu, measuring about ten thousand miles of millimeters in diameter.

The virus effectively avoids the infected cell, turning it into a flu factory. Each infected cell can produce thousands of new viral particles.

With each cough or sneeze, they spray out into millions and loiter in the air until another person breaks in them. Other particles fall on surfaces where they can be spread through contact.

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The flu also has a short incubation period; The gap between exposure to the virus and symptoms is one day to four days, according to the US National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).

The period you are infectious can vary. You may be able to spread the infection from a day or two before you become ill, until the symptoms arrive in the country (about a week after they have been present – although coughing and fatigue can continue) t for several weeks).

For most people, the first three or four days when you have symptoms are the most contagious time for you, NCIRD says.

What are the symptoms of influenza?

Influenza infection is limited to your respiratory tract – nose, throat and airways – but it is truly known throughout your body as the immune system tackles the virus.

Most people complain about chills and high fever, muscle aches and pains, and are very tired, headache, sore throat and cough.

In children, the abdominal pain can promote pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

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Compared to normal cold, flu usually lasts longer – up to a week – with fever, cold sweat and muscle aches all over the body, but these are usually as severe or absent if cold t at you.

Other infections can look like flu. These include bacterial pneumonia – more common in people with existing chest problems including asthma or emphysema – and strep throat, a streptococcal bacterial infection in the throat.

Meningitis can start with symptoms such as flu, including headaches and fever, but these have more specific symptoms, such as drowsiness (or difficult to wake up), stiff neck, photovobia (dislike of bright lights). ), vomiting, and rash are not fade when you press glass against him.

In young children, one of the viruses that creates the common cold can cause more flu-like symptoms.

Who is at risk from flu?

A tissue box and a cup of tea for a story about all the things you need about flu.
Image You can avoid flu by maintaining a healthy lifestyle and washing your hands regularly.(Unsplash: Kelly Sikkema)

Most flu cases resolve on their own and with no significant consequences, but some groups have a much greater difficulty.

These include those over 65. This group is the majority of the flu-related deaths.

This is due to the increasing age, the body is less strong and the immune system is not as effective to react quickly to new infections.

The young people they are also at risk of flu.

Infants and young children are more likely to be admitted to hospital when they get flu, and to develop more severe symptoms than adults. This is because their immune systems have not learned the virus to identify and neutralize.

In addition to the elderly and infants, people with chronic diseases they are also at risk.

These include heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, asthma and other respiratory diseases, reducing body defenses.

Indigenous People and Our Lady of Torres They are also at risk of flu and often have more severe results after infection.

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Research is shown pregnant women and their unborn children they are more likely to experience difficulties if the mother contracts the flu.

As well as the increased demands placed on the body during pregnancy itself, this effect also means that the illness can stay up to three times longer than usual.

In Australia, influenza vaccination is recommended for all pregnant women and can be given at any time during pregnancy.

The complications of influenza can include things like asthma, secondary bacterial infections in the lungs, and febrile convulsions in young children. More information on possible flu problems is listed below.

You are entitled to get a free flu shot if you are:

  • Six months or older and have specific medical risk factors, including heart disease or severe asthma
  • Native Island or Islander Torres Strait over six months of your age
  • 65 years old and older
  • Pregnant

What about the flu vaccine?

There are three types of influenza virus identified in humans: A, B and C.

Types A and B are essentially identical illnesses, but influenza C generally does not affect children but they are more severe, such as cold.

The main cause of influenza prevention is the flu vaccine, which contains a cocktail of three or four virus characteristics, providing protection against influenza A and influenza B infections.

Every year in Australia there is a recipe; A new vaccine is available for the flu vaccine, and some guess work involves this.

While experts make decisions based on information about recent flu epidemic patterns around the world, they need to predict which types of influenza are most likely to occur in the next season of Australian influenza.

Because the vaccine needs to be planned and manufactured many months before the start of the flu season, the strains on which vaccines each year are not always well established may be due to the deficiencies in the circulating influenza virus.

Because the flu virus can change quickly it adds to the difficulty of making accurate predictions.

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Because the vaccine starts the immune response in the same way as the virus, vaccination can sometimes cause mild flu symptoms for a day or so after the administration.

This occurs more commonly in children than in adults, but the vaccine cannot cause flu to develop. There is only a dead virus song.

People with an allergy should seek medical advice eggs before immunization because eggs are involved in the production of flu vaccines.

Even in the years when the flu vaccine is not working as well as health experts, vaccination is expected. Flu vaccination was shown in a number of studies to reduce the severity of illness in people receiving vaccination but still ill.

Vaccination could get yourself protecting people around you, including those who are more vulnerable to serious flu illness.

This is important because some people may have serious difficulties and can sometimes kill young people.

You must see a doctor if:

  • Continuous high fever (38 degrees Celsius or above)
  • Breathing breath or breath breath
  • Dehydration, drowsiness and confusion
  • Chest pain
  • Drainage or seizures

Flu treatment and prevention

In the complex cases of flu, the best treatment is the rest, lots of fluids and simple panellists such as paracetamol.

Antibiotics do not affect viral infections, including flu, but it may be useful if secondary bacterial infection develops, such as pneumonia or tonsillitis.

Antiviral drugs are specifically designed to fight flu, but they work best if taken within 48 hours of the symptoms occurring and a doctor needs to prescribe them.

You can also reduce the risk associated with influenza by: t

Other general measures that may help you include: t

  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle and diet
  • Get enough sleep
  • Operate regularly
  • Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol

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What are the difficulties that could occur because of the flu?

Asthma: This can be worse (temporarily). If breathing is still difficult despite the increasing use of inhaler, see your doctor.

Croup, or laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis: This condition occurs, with coughing 'barking'; it, in children and can be stimulated by influenza infection.

Febrile convulsions: In any fever-related illness, children between six months and five years of age can get exercises, or brief seizures from time to time.

This is not the same as epilepsy and solves spontaneously when the illness occurs.

Secondary bacterial infections in the lungs (pneumonia), the average ear (otitis media, common in children) and sinuses (sinusitis): If you are sick with flu you can be more vulnerable to secondary infection with bacteria. This can occur in the lungs (causing pneumonia), the average ear (causing middle ear infection) and in the sinuses (causing sinusitis). Antibiotic treatment may be required.

Viral pneumonia: This occurs when the virus itself causes damage to the lung tissue, which causes the breath to worsen, dry cough and, in extreme cases, confusion and discolouration of the skin due to levels t low blood oxygen.

Viral pneumonia is not as common as its bacterial counterpart but is extremely serious. The patient must normally be placed on an ventilator, and the condition is often fatal.

Reye Syndrome: This sometimes happens in children up to 15 years of age and is stimulated by infections with influenza B viruses or the virus that creates the chicken.

The swelling of the brain and irregular accumulation of fat in the liver. It also produces drowsiness, inactivity or irrational behavior.

Aspirin-medicines should not be given to children under 15 because it can increase the risk of Reye syndrome.

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Inflammation of the muscles (myositis), or the heart (myocarditis): This can sometimes lead to influenza infection, particularly in children.

With myositis, the muscles become tender, especially in the legs. If heart inflammation occurs, inflammation, breathlessness, chest discomfort and rapid pulse may occur.

Miscarriage: Rare asthma can cause miscarriage.

Neurological problems: t Rarely, problems can be infected with the nervous system, including viral and post-viral encephalitis (inflammation in the brain), and a condition that creates muscle weakness called Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Kidney failure: t Dehydration due to lack of fluid intake can be sufficient for certain kidney failure (renal failure), particularly if there is already a kidney disease. However, this is usually reversible for rehydration.

Note: If you think you or someone else will need an ambulance, but you are not sure, you can call a trial-0 and talk to someone. If you want to get advice on a medical condition and what to do next, the Healthdirect Australia (1800 022 222) is a 24 hour free phone line with a registered nurse team.

This is general information only. For detailed personal advice, you should see a qualified medical practitioner who knows your medical history.

This story, first written by Chris Smith and recently published by ABC Health and Wellbeing, was updated.

Professor John Upham of the University of Queensland and Professor Ian Barr, deputy director of the Center for Influenza Reference and Research Cooperation reviewed.

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