Understanding Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Symptoms, Impact, and Treatment

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Chronic Condition Affecting Women’s Health

By [Journalist’s Name]

Many young women often hope that the acne they experience during adolescence will disappear as they enter adulthood. However, for some, this is not the case. Contrary to expectations, acne continues to persist well into their 30s, along with unwanted facial hair and hair loss. Such concerns can lead to heightened anxiety and stress, prompting a visit to a dermatologist. Surprisingly, the dermatologist advises a consultation with a gynecologist. Following this recommendation, the woman is promptly diagnosed with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), a condition that affects one in ten women of reproductive age.

Dr. Pornthip Sirayapiwat, a professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Chulalongkorn University, explains that aside from the impact on appearance – including obesity, acne, and hair loss – PCOS is a chronic and serious health condition. If left untreated, it can lead to a variety of complications. Unfortunately, many women are unaware of what PCOS entails. To clarify, PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder, affecting approximately 5-10% of women aged 15-45, from adolescence through menopause. Notably, PCOS is also a leading cause of female infertility.

PCOS is characterized by the presence of small cysts in the ovaries. The condition arises due to abnormalities affecting multiple systems in the body, leading to hormonal imbalances. The main symptoms of PCOS include irregular and infrequent menstrual cycles, excessive weight gain, oily skin, acne, and hirsutism. These symptoms may decrease in severity as menopause approaches, and the severity of PCOS can vary among individuals.

These symptoms can be further categorized into two main groups:

  1. Irregular Menstruation: Women with PCOS experience irregular ovulation cycles, with longer or more frequent menstrual periods. Some may even menstruate only 3-4 times a year.
  2. Abnormal Testosterone Levels: PCOS causes abnormal functioning of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, and ovaries, resulting in fluctuations in sex hormone levels. Women with PCOS have abnormally high levels of testosterone, which give rise to symptoms such as oily skin, acne, and excessive hair growth in typically male areas (e.g., mustache, chest, abdomen, arms, thighs, and back). Some women may also experience thinning hair and male pattern baldness. Additionally, increased levels of insulin in the bloodstream, a hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels, increase the risk of diabetes.

Dr. Pornthip urges women of reproductive age to be mindful of their bodies and seek medical advice if they experience any of the following seven symptoms:

  1. Irregular, late, or scanty periods.
  2. Increase in acne and excessively oily skin.
  3. Excessive body hair in areas usually associated with men, such as the mustache, beard, and chest.
  4. Thinning hair or baldness.
  5. Darkened skin, especially along the back, neck, armpits, and inner thighs.
  6. Body Mass Index (BMI) above 25, indicating overweight or obesity.
  7. Waist circumference greater than 88 cm, indicating abdominal obesity.

It is important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, including adrenal gland and thyroid gland abnormalities, as well as ovarian tumors. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis of PCOS requires a comprehensive evaluation, including medical history, physical examination, and ultrasound examination of the ovaries for cysts. In some cases, blood tests may also be necessary to assess hormone levels, diabetes risk, and obesity factors.

While the exact cause of PCOS is still unknown, studies suggest a correlation between PCOS and insulin and hormone secretions in the pituitary gland, ovaries, and abdominal fat. As a result, individuals with a family history of diabetes or those who are overweight have a higher risk of developing PCOS.

PCOS not only affects women’s appearance, but it also poses significant risks for chronic and serious diseases. For instance, when ovulation does not occur regularly, it increases the likelihood of abnormal thickening of the uterine lining and, in the long term, raises the risk of endometrial cancer.

Moreover, PCOS affects the body’s metabolic system, leading to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, ultimately increasing the risk of developing diabetes. Furthermore, it is associated with conditions such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity (especially abdominal obesity), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, depression, infertility, and cardiovascular disease.

Treatment for PCOS varies depending on individual factors. For those experiencing irregular menstrual symptoms, doctors may prescribe progesterone hormone therapy to regulate the menstrual cycle and reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Combined hormonal contraceptive pills can help manage excessive testosterone levels and restore regular menstruation.

In cases of infertility, ovulation-inducing medications may be prescribed. Moreover, individuals with metabolic disorders, obesity, or diabetes are recommended to lose weight and receive appropriate medications to alleviate PCOS symptoms.

According to Dr. Pornthip, individuals with PCOS who are overweight or obese should strive to lose 5-10% of their body weight, as it significantly improves symptoms. Lifestyle modifications, such as engaging in regular physical activity and adopting a healthy diet, play a crucial role in managing PCOS.

In terms of diet, studies have shown that PCOS is associated with a reduction in beneficial gut bacteria when symptoms are present. Therefore, individuals with PCOS should avoid high sugar and high-fat foods while increasing their fiber intake. Such behavior modifications are essential in mitigating the long-term health risks associated with PCOS.

For those seeking advice and services related to PCOS, an infertility clinic specializing in PCOS is available every Tuesday from 1:00 PM to 4:00 PM at the Phor Por Ror Building, Floor 8. Inquiries can be made through the contact numbers provided: 0-2256-5274, 0-2256-4000 Ext. 92117, or 08-1421-0675. Alternatively, additional information can be obtained via the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department website: or the department’s Facebook page: They can also be reached via Line: @obcu.update or email: [email protected]

Having pimples on the face during adolescence can worry many young women, but many hope that the pimples will subside after the “hormonal age”. But after reaching the age of 30, the acne is still there, and the hair looks like a moustache. And hair loss! Anxiety elevated to stress. from visiting a dermatologist regularly He was advised to see a gynaecologist. She was immediately diagnosed as one of the women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which affects 1 in 10 women of reproductive age.

Professor Pornthip Sirayapiwat, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty of Medicine Chulalongkorn University said that obesity, acne, hair loss, and hair loss may reduce confidence in appearance, but more than that, it is a chronic and serious disease that may follow. If it does not take care of the symptoms of PCOS in a timely manner this Syndrome that many women can be suffering from this disease. But I don’t know what PCOS is, which is polycystic ovary syndrome. This is the most common endocrine condition, around 5-10% in adolescent to menopausal women aged 15-45 and is one of the factors that cause infertility in some women.

“People with PCOS have small cysts in their ovaries, called cysts. PCOS is caused by abnormalities that occur in many systems in the body that cause hormonal imbalance. The main symptoms of PCOS are irregular and irregular menstrual cycles, long periods of absence, obesity, weight gain, oily skin, acne and hirsutism. less severe as menopause approaches or approaches, and PCOS symptoms can range from mild to severe. Varies for every woman.

But the obvious symptoms can be divided into 2 large groups as follows: 1. Irregular menstruation Irregular ovulation cycles Some have longer menstrual cycles than usual, some have more frequent ones. Some menstruate for 3-4 months or menstruate less than 8 times a year 2. Abnormal testosterone. Caused by abnormal functioning of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, ovaries, causing fluctuations in sex hormone levels. Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome have an abnormally high level of testosterone in the blood (hyperandrogenism) This is the source of the main symptoms, such as oily skin, acne, hair growing in many parts of the body, such as a mustache and sideburns. chest, abdomen, lower midline, upper arms, inner thighs, and back Some women also experience thinning hair and male pattern baldness. and also found increased levels of the hormone insulin in the bloodstream which increases the risk of diabetes Due to abnormal production and response to insulin function, check 7 symptoms of PCOS, know before treating

Professor Pornthip, MD Invite women of reproductive age to keep an eye on their bodies And if there are any of the 7 symptoms, consult a gynaecologist: 1. Irregular periods, late, distant or spotty bleeding More acne than usual, oily skin 3. More hair on the body Or up in areas that usually occur in men such as moustache, beard, chest hair, etc. 4. Thin hair, baldness 5. Skin is black, especially along the crease of the back, neck, armpit, arm stick or with a polyp body mass index (BMI criteria 25 or higher) or lead to obese 7. have a waist circumference greater than 88 cm or have abdominal obesity The above symptoms can be caused by other diseases such as abnormalities of adrenal glands, thyroid glands, ovarian tumors, etc. Therefore, the exact diagnosis of PCOS syndrome requires the use of history taking, physical examination and ultrasound. Look at the ovaries which includes cysts in the ovaries with too many egg sacs or not, and in some cases, blood tests may be needed to look at sex hormone levels, diabetes, obesity, PCOS risk factors

Although medically still do not know the exact cause of the syndrome. PCOS, but people with a family history of diabetes have been found. overweight people Higher risk of PCOS

“Polycystic ovarian syndrome is associated with insulin and hormone secretion in the pituitary gland, ovaries, “abdominal fat. Visceral fat and abdominal obesity It contributes to more of this syndrome.” Cancer, diabetes, NCDs, silent threats that PCOS brings,” said Professor Pornthip from the Association.

Not only does PCOS affect appearance due to acne or obesity, PCOS is also a silent threat that can lead to a number of chronic and serious diseases. When the egg does not ovulate on time, it increases the chance that the endometrium will divide abnormally thick cells. And in the long term, it increases the risk of endometrial cancer.

Professor Dr. Pornthip, in addition to the reproductive system, PCOS also affects the metabolic system in the body. or metabolic system with “PCOS It can cause glucose intolerance. The most common is an abnormal response to insulin, which initially increases the risk of developing diabetes. Including conditions related to high blood pressure, hyperlipidaemia, obesity, particularly abdominal obesity. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, depression, infertility, and increasing the risk of future cardiovascular disease.

Regarding the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome, how to treat people with PCOS, doctors will determine the diagnosis based on certain factors individually. and provide treatment accordingly to those with abnormal menstrual symptoms Your doctor will prescribe progesterone hormone therapy to bring your menstrual cycle back to normal. and prevent abnormal thickening of the lining of the uterus This will lead to endometrial cancer. In case of having too much testosterone Treatment involves taking a combined hormonal contraceptive pill to help reduce testosterone. It also makes menstruation come straight. and prevent endometrial cancer

In case of infertility Doctors consider it a drug that induces ovulation for those with metabolic disorders, who are overweight or obese, or whose blood test reveals diabetes. have hyperlipidemia I have to lose weight and take medication to treat the symptoms.

“If your period is still coming every 2 months, it is still acceptable. But if menstruation occurs every 3-4 months, there is a risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which can lead to endometrial cancer. must be treated for people with PCOS who are overweight or obese Losing 5-10% of body weight will help symptoms improve.” Assistant Professor Pornthip, MD. Professor Dr. Pornthip, no matter what medicine the doctor treats, Dr. It is important to adapt the person’s lifestyle to the condition. PCOS “Assume the patient is overweight. losing weight must increase exercise and eat healthy food.”

Professor Pornthip, MD He cites studies suggesting that PCOS is related to insulin and lipid hormones. who have symptoms There will be a reduction in the good bacteria in the intestines. Therefore, avoid foods that are high in sugar and fat. and increasing the intake of foods that are high in fiber the taxpayer needs to modify their behavior Help to reduce the serious health effects that can occur in the long term. or seek advice and receive services about polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can inquire at the infertility clinic and PCOS is available every Tuesday. Except on public holidays, between 1:00 PM and 4:00 PM, in the Phor Por Ror Building, floor 8, call 0-2256-5274. For more information, please contact the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department. Faculty of Medicine Chulalongkorn University Website: Facebook:
Line: @obcu.update
Email: [email protected]
Telephone 0-2256-4000 Ext. 92117, 08-1421-0675

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