Mars was supposed to be later. The moon was certainly a sharp stone to capture space. For many people who came of age in Apollo's time, it seemed reasonable to assume that the whole solar system would be the cornerstone. Eventually, we were visiting stars. “Star Trek”, which emerged from 1966, appeared to be a plausible vision of human fate.
Half a century after Apollo 11, we were repeatedly forced to recalibrate our expectations.
It is no longer inevitable to explore deep space by human meat and blood. It is not seen as affordable under the plausible government budgets in the post-Space Race, and private sector dreams cannot make enough pencil, as they say. Space travel is still dangerous; created the devastating loss of two space shuttle crews.
We are evenly designed on this planet, and we are physically fragile when you get out of this planet
There was also more subtle exposure from the experience of half a century with the light of space. By entering the space we have a better understanding of our connection with the Earth.
The human body takes care when it is turned into space and away from the Earth's common surface environment. We learned this by doing it. And our terrestrial nature is biological and psychological terrestrial: astronauts in orbit spend a lot of free time overlooking the window, towards the town.
Perhaps the most important thing we have learned from the Space Age is that we are Land.
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When astronaut Scott Kelly joined in orbit in 2015 for almost a year mission, his immune system went first. He acted as if a virus was under attack. At cellular level, his body was screaming: Where is gravity?
The fluids in his body ended in the wrong places, an occupational hazard for astronauts. The effects include insomnia and vague vision. And while its genetic code has not changed, its gene expression has changed significantly – the creation of proteins on the company's working horses, and some turning off genes and others turning.
The astronauts adapt to gravity and do their jobs well. But then they face another tree when they return to Earth. Kelly had painful pain, legs, symptoms and symptoms. Returns a gene expression on its normal condition, but not completely. Kelly said that it was not okay for about eight months.
While Scott attended the Earth, his brother, Mark, went on the surface, stopping to allow researchers to urine, etc. to taste his sister or sister in space. NASA said its Mating Study did not reveal any stop-show – thus preventing human mission to Mars, the agency's long-term goal.
But the study reminded us that human bodies, which are adapted to life on this particular planet, have pressing space travel. Our bones lose density. Muscles can atrophy. Astronauts must practice two hours a day to keep them from wasting. We can live in space, but that environment really does not agree with us.
“It is fairly designed on this planet, and we are physically fragile when you come from this planet,” said co-author Christopher Mason, genetic at Weill Cornell Medicine, with The Washington Post.
In the Hollywood version of spaceflight, no one ever worries about the composition of the air in the spaceship. But as Scott Kelly can attest, the air in the International Space Station can be somewhat off. Kelly says that high levels of carbon dioxide can create malaise, particularly in areas of poor air circulation.
The Kelly brothers took part in NASA-sponsored media conference recently to discuss the Gemini Study, and Stuart Lee, one of the researchers, said the air on the ISS is “very close to what is We have the ground. ”CO2 levels, went on, 0.3% of the air, compared to about 0.03% on the Earth's surface.
Scott Kelly quickly looked: “So it's 10 times higher, Stuart. Right? ”
“So it's 10 times higher,” admitted Lee.
Then there is radiation. The Earth's magnetic field protects the ISS from a large part of space radiation. But an astronaut traveling to Mars would not have that protection and would be particularly vulnerable to “cosmic rays”, which are initial particles of galactic origin that travel almost at the speed of light, and t This could cause cancer, genetic damage and acute radiation illness.
NASA's human psychology is another concern. Scott Kelly could view a window and see the Earth. He could call home. It may be in contact, in real time. But it would take at least six months' journey to Mars using the current technology – and it would probably be longer. A radio signal between the spacecraft and the Earth took minutes to travel across the inter-monetary areas, which meant that ordinary conversation could not be done. Horror is a danger. So there are interpersonal conflicts among crew members.
“Certainly when people go to Mars that some of those people will suffer major psychiatric symptoms because of the nature of the way people are,” said Andrew Feinberg, co-author of Twins Study at Johns Hopkins University.
Human is a composite organism – a collaboration involving trillions of microbes, most of which live in our stomachs. The microbes come from the Earth and are closely related to the Earth. Not only is Mars the type of air, water, gravity and radiation we used, and certainly not the right kind of bacteria.
None of this prevents a human mission to Mars or other places in space. Don't underestimate future generations' intellect. But the biggest technology beds since Apollo occurred in the heaven of 0 and '- the digital revolution. Robots do well in space. Any mission to the moon or Mars must justify your human presence.
NASA plans to put another rover on Mars soon, one designed to get soil samples that can be sent back to the Earth to robotic. It is a scientific echo of what Apollo astronauts did. The difference this time: No one in the loop.
Alexa, give us Mars rock.
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The most passionate advocates of space exploration say we have no other choice. They see it as an exclusive requirement, because bad things can happen to a good planet (ask the dinosaurs who did not have a backup plan 66 million years ago when a huge rock hit the Earth). And people could encourage their own influence: Someone could make a very bad microbe. We need to resolve the climate crisis because of human activity, and nuclear war is still a great opportunity.
Stephen Hawking was late among the clever people who said we need a choice. “While the chances of a disaster occurring in a particular world in a particular year may be relatively low, it increases over time, and it becomes as sure as it is in the 1,000 or 10,000 years ahead,” he said. Hawking, according to Newsweek article in November 2016. “By that time, we should be scattered out in space and that other stars, so disaster does not mean the end of the human race.”
Apollo 11 Winner of the moon Aldrin met with this opinion in a recent edition of The Washington Post which initiated “the great migration of humans to Mars.” He wrote that we have no other choice: “[H]Human nature – and the survival of the species ultimately – requires that humanity continues to the world. . . . We inspect, or expire. ”
Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX, has said that its core purpose is to create human civilization on Mars so that we can become a two planet species. He is not talking about a research outlet that is just the Antarctic: He wants to build cities on Mars, a civilization that is fully self-sustaining, which will preserve humanity in the event of something deeply happening.
We inspect, or die
Musk and his magnificent engineers were successful with SpaceX and the Tesla electric car company, so those suspicious of Musk's hard speech tend to hedge their bets today. Yes, it is too great, but it's continuous.
Still, SpaceX and Musk cannot stop the technological and budgetary challenges that prevented NASA and all other space agencies worldwide from undertaking Mars's mission. (Or maybe he can: When a Musk was asked a few years ago under the radiation hazard in an inter-monetary space, he said he wasn't concerned about it.
In 2017, President Donald Trump asked NASA's active administrator if the agency could send people to Mars by 2020. Reply: No chance.
Mars is not parked in the space outside the moon. In his book “The Moon,” author Oliver Morton writes the moon, “[It] not only is the closest destination to the other place; it is the longest way forward here. He is very much ahead of the Earth, so his face is rippled with gravity hands so strong that the eye cannot turn from us. ”Mars, however, is in charge of the sun. Mars can be as big as 249 million miles from Earth. Almost any assessable mission to Mars requires something like a 500 day stay on the Red Planet before planets orbits allow a trip home.
While Musk Mars sees the upper upper planet, she would need a lot of fixing. That's the message from another tycoon to a space company – Jeff Bezos, founder of Blue Origin and owner of The Washington Post. Bezos prefers to gradually transfer the heavy industry into space, so that the Earth can be a protected refuge. He does not see Mars as Plan B, saying in 2016: “Think about it: there is no whiskey, no bacon, no swimming pools, no ocean, no hiking, no urban centers. Eventually Mars could be amazing. But that's far into the future. This planet is incredible. ”
Scott Kelly has no courage in Mallow as a potential stimulus: “It will always be easier to look after this planet than to make Mars into another world. It is not our lifeboat. ”
The great physicist Freeman Dyson once hypothesised that this was the most interesting and universal world and we are there to do so. And maybe it is right.
But the science told us several times – and this is a very hilarious message – not the accuracy of us.
It is certain that, in the foreseeable future, there is nothing incredibly plausible in space. Earth is not disposable. Here we do our stand.
That 's learned from entering the space.